Oncology Radiotracers

FDG is far and away the most widely used PET tracer being used for nearly all clinical PET scans. Many other tracers are under development and are likely to see widespread use, both in the clinic and for research, within the next ~5 years. These include:

Validating new radiotracers such as these and making them widely available is one of the main challenges that needs to be addressed in order to realise the full potential of PET imaging.

This research directory summarises the PET radiotracers with established or promising oncology applications which are currently being produced in the UK. This map shows companies and academic sites that can potentially supply the radiotracer either on a commercial basis or as part of an academic collaboration.

Please note that the list is not exhaustive and there may be other sites and tracers that are not currently covered. In addition, while a tracer may already be in use for some studies, this does not necessarily mean that it will not be considered an Investigational Medicinal Product (IMP) by the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). If there is doubt about the IMP status then this should be confirmed with the MHRA.

A list of IMPDs is available on the EANM website.


GMP-Grade Radiopharmaceuticals Application
[64Cu]-(diacetyl-bis(N4-methylthiosemicarbazone) (ATSM) Hypoxia
[61Cu]-(diacetyl-bis(N4-methylthiosemicarbazone) (ATSM) Hypoxia
[18F]-Fluoromisonidazole (FMISO) Hypoxia
[18F]-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) Glucose Metabolism
[18F]-Sodium Fluoride (NaF) Bone Scanning
[18F]-Fluorothymidine (FLT) Cellular Proliferation
[18F]-Fluoroethylcholine Lipid Metabolism
[18F]-Fluoromethylcholine Lipid Metabolism
[18F]-3,4-dihydroxy-6-18F-fluoro-L-phenylalanine (F-DOPA) Neuroendocrine tumours
[11C]-Choline Lipid Metabolism
[11C]-Methionine Amino-acid Metabolism
[11C]-Verapamil P-glyoprotein transporter
[11C]-methylglucose Glucose Transport
[11C]-Antisense Apoptosis (very specific function)
[11C]-Metomidate 11b-hydroxylase marker
[15O]-Water Blood flow
[15O]-Carbon monoxide Blood volume
[15O]-Oxygen Oxygen metabolism


Non-GMP Grade Radiopharmaceuticals Application
[18F]-Sodium Fluoride (NaF) for 18F synthesis
[64Cu]-(diacetyl-bis(N4-methylthiosemicarbazone) (ATSM) Hypoxia
[18F]-Fluoroazomycin arabinoside (FAZA) Hypoxia
[11C]-Butanol Blood flow

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